2016 / 17


History of I.R.

LANGUAGE IN WHICH IT IS GIVENCatalan  Spanish  English  
Grau en Relacions Internacionals








Professor: Senén Florensa

Core group:

This course aims to introduce both the historical and practical knowledge of International Relations to build a sound basis either to start a specialization in this field or as a useful approach to the conduction of international affairs for those who want to enhance their knowledge aiming at an academic, journalistic or entrepreneurial carrier. A sound historical basis of knowledge is as well a necessary intellectual and practical equipment for all those working in the myriad of institutions with international or direct or indirect international interests.

The course is organized in three parts that constitute the core group of knowledge to be acquired and include as well more practical and workshop-like sessions to develop and share knowledge and skills with a series of guided work sessions devoted to specific topics on the history of international relations, conflict studies and resolution, international sectorial policy issues and other case-studies.

Throughout the course, students will be required to read a range of key texts and prepare and participate in individual presentations or debate sessions.        



LEARNING UNIT 1. History of IR through a geopolitical lens

Professor: David Criekemans

In this Learning Unit, we will analyze History of International Relations through a Geopolitical Lens. The field of Geopolitics is older than IR, it was established in the 1890s compared to 1919. Many of the assumptions in Realism actually came from Classical Geopolitics. In this Learning Unit, we will investigate how geopolitical thinkers through time impacted on the international relations of their era, sometimes directly, sometimes indirectly. Also, we will learn how the unfolding drama of international relations influenced geopolitical thinking. By doing so, an enhanced and original perspective is offered, which will shed new insights into the History of International Relations since 1870.

First, we will analyze the era of Imperial Geopolitics between 1870 and 1914. Geopolitical thinkers such as Friedrich Ratzel, Rudolf Kjellén, Alfred Thayer Mahan and Halford John Mackinder will be analysed. For instance, Mahan wrote the first sea power theories, which directly influenced the US in becoming a major international power. But Mahan also influenced the sea power strategy of the German emperor Wilhelm II. Halford John Mackinder, on the other hand, championed the land power theory, and warned that the British empire may soon be confronted by a Russia that would unify the Eurasian heartland thanks to railways. How did the geopolitical thinkers affect international relations, and vice versa? Could the great calamity which was the Great War already be predicted in advance?

Secondly, we devote attention to the Interwar Geopolitics between 1914 and 1945. On the one hand, Geopolitics became popular in Germany thanks to the writings of Karl Haushofer, who hoped Geopolitics could become a scientific tool to advise future German leaders not to make the same mistakes as Wilhelm II. On the other hand, the French geopolitical school of Possibilism under Paul Vidal de la Blache produced a rather different, non-confrontational vision on how territoriality affects international relations. The clash between both schools of thought is also mirrored by the international developments of this era. At the same time an American Geopolitics started to develop, with Nicholas John Spykman being one of the best known figures, but also people like Harold and Margaret Sprout.

Thirdly, we will investigate Cold War Geopolitics between 1945 and 1991. Special attention is devoted to such authors as Robert Strausz-Hupé, Henry Kissinger, Zbigniew Brzezinski and Colin S. Gray. The nuclear era had dawned and all international relations became trapped in a bipolar mode. We will investigate some of the key events and try to pinpoint the geopolitical dimensions of this particular era in international relations history.  

Finally, we will investigate the Post-Cold War Geopolitics since 1991 until today. Via analyzing some more recent geopolitical authors, we try to grasp some of the most fundamental geopolitical changes that the world currently is undergoing. We will analyze such authors as Samuel Huntington, Robert D. Kaplan, Dominique Moïsi, John Agnew and others. To what extent can (the history of) Geopolitics help us to try to analyse tomorrow’s international relations?

LEARNING UNIT 2. History of the Cold War

Professor: Andrei Grachev

The course will deal with the origin and the evolution of the Cold War - this « drôle de guerre » - which had dominated the international situation since the end of the World War II in 1945 until the collapse of the communist regimes in the Eastern Europe, the fall of Berlin Wall and finally the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991.

We shall study the specificity of the bipolar world dominated for several decades by the rivalry and the strategic competition between East and West resulting in the division of Europe and the split of the rest of the world into the spheres of influence between the USA and the Soviet Union. Major international crises of these years will be examined (starting with the several Berlin crises until the Soviet invasion in Afghanistan, not forgetting the wars in Korea and Vietnam, the Suez crisis and the soviet interventions in Budapest (1956) and Prague (1968) and certainly the Cuban missile crisis in 1962).

A particular feature of this chapter in world policy was the threat of the nuclear annihilation and the armaments race between the two world’s superpowers started by the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima in 1945 followed by the dissemination of the nuclear armaments and announcing the perspective of a “Star wars” program of shifting of the arms competition in the outer space

The important feature of this period was also the emergence of other world players ready to challenge the domination of the two superpowers, and particularly of China, as well as the experience of the non-aligned movement and the extraordinary role played by Europe with its example of integration and the Helsinki process largely contributing to the eventual unification of the continent.

Particular attention will be given to the explanation of the exceptional phenomena of Gorbachev’s Perestroika in the Soviet Union – its origins, ambitions and consequences particularly on the international scene, resulting in the elimination of the Iron Curtain and the peaceful ending of the Cold War.

Profiting from the survey of the evolution of world situation in the last decades we shall analyze the reasons why the hopes that had accompanied the ending of this troublesome chapter in the world’s history hasn’t brought about the harmony of the New World Order and in why the chance that it had offered to worlds’ politics (and politicians) has not been used, bringing back the dangers of new world’s divides and international crises in the 21st century.  


  1. Understand and apply to the real world the concepts and historical experience of international relations and foreign policy.

  2. Acquire a fluent use of the language and concepts of the world of history and international relations.

  3. To gain an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the foreign policies pursued by the different actors of diplomatic and international relations in the course of the different periods of history.

  4. Identification of source materials for historical research and practice in written and oral presentation and debate sessions.

These competences will be evaluated based on the criteria and instruments specified below.

Students are expected to achieve the following learning outcomes by the end of the course:

  1. To know the contemporary history of international relations to pinpoint their deep structures and to contextualize the theoretical developments of International Relations.


Core group:


I. Introduction to the History of International Relations

1. On History. The Tradition of Historiography.


“Introduction to the 2009 reissue” and “Introduction” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.


“The Historian and His Facts” from Carr’s What is History? Link:

What is History in International Relations? Lawson and Hobson.

2. The International Relations from a Historical Perspective. Theory and History.


“Introduction to the 2009 reissue” and “Introduction” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

Optional: “Causation in History” from Carr’s What is History?

3. The Evolution of International Society. A Theoretical Framework.


“Introduction” and “Scope and Definitions” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.


“History as Progress” from Carr’s What is History?

II. The Ancient State Systems

4. Classical Greece. The Origin of Western Tradition. Rationalism, Democracy and the “international” City-State System.


“Classical Greece. Independence and Hegemony” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

“The Macedonian System. Hellenization of the Persian System” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

Optional: The Athenian Origins of Direct Democracy From Polis to Cosmopolis. Hellenization and etc. Greeks, Democracy and Slavery (650-501 BCE).

*Other interesting lectures from Macrohistory: The Greeks at War, Alexander the Great (particularly “Macedonia unites Greece's City-States and Ends Democracy”)

5. Rome. The Imperial Synthesis. The Roman Empire and the East Byzantine Diplomacy.


“Rome. The final classical imperial synthesis” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis. Republican Rome

History Guide lecture 12: Cesar Augustus.

Optional: Byzantine Civilization.

6. Empire and State in ancient Asia: India and China


“India. Multiple independences and the Mauryan Empire” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

“China. Hegemony, warring states and empire” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

Optional: India, Empire and Chaos. Dynastic Rule and the Chinese.

7. Islam. Expansionism and Evolution of the Islamic System.


“The Islamic System. Adaptation of many traditions” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis. Islamic Civilization.


III. From Medieval Christendom to the Concept of Europe

8. Feudalism and Christendom. Longing for Empire and for the lost civilization. The many traditions of the Medieval World. The cradle of nations. War and peace, knights, merchants and priests.


“Medieval Europe. The originality of Latin Christendom” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis. Charlemagne and the Carolingian Renaissance.

Optional: Feudalism and the Feudal Relationship. Ecclesiology: A Short Course on the Medieval Church. Yuri Koszarycz. Christian Organization and Conflict in the Middle Ages.

9. Renaissance Diplomacy. Machiavelli, the Popes and the Italian states in the Renaissance.


“The Renaissance in Italy. The stato” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

Optional: Cannon, Politics and Machiavelli.

10. The Modern system of International Relations and the invention of the Modern state.


“The Renaissance in Europe. The stato outside Italy” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

Optional: Europe, 1201 to 1500 CE. Rising Powers of Portugal and Spain. Europe's Renaissance Begins.

11. Europe and the Habsburgs. The bid for hegemony. Karl, François and the Ottomans. Power, Humanism, Reformation and Religious Wars. (Together)


“The Habsburg Bid for Hegemony” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis. Europe in the Age of Religious Wars.


12. Richelieu. The anti-hegemonic Alliance and the beginning of the French Diplomacy.


“From Universality to Equilibrium: Richelieu, William of Orange, and Pitt”, from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.

Optional: The Path to Royal Absolutism. The Rise and Fall of Absolutism. In Library of Congress. Cardinal Richelieu, Political Testament. In Hanover Historical Texts Project.

13. The Thirty Years’ War. Westphalia: a new order for Europe.


“Westphalia. An anti-hegemonial commonwealth of states” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis. Thirty Year’s War. The Peace of Westphalia and a Changed Europe.

Optional: Europe in the Age of Religious Wars.

14. Reason and balance of powers at the time of Mozart.


“The Age of Reason and of Balance” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

Optional: Lecture 9. Écrasez l'infâme!: The Triumph of Science and the Heavenly City of the 18th Century Philosophe.

15. Guns and sails. A European World. The building of the Empire.


“European Expansion. Overseas and overland” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.


“Beyond Guns, Germs, and Steel: European Expansion and Maritime Asia, 1400-17501” from Tonio Andrade. Published in the Journal of Early Modern History 14 (2010)

16. The Age of Revolution. The International dimension of the French revolutionary cycle.

Compulsory: Lecture 11: The Origins of the French Revolution. Lecture 12: The French Revolution: The Moderate Stage, 1789-1792. Lecture 13: The French Revolution: The Radical Stage, 1792-1794.

Optional: The French Revolution.

17. Thermidor & Napoleon. A short - lived dream of a European Empire.


“The Napoleonic Empire” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

Optional: Lecture 15: Europe and the Superior Being: Napoleon.

18. The Congress of Wien. The European international system between reaction and liberalism.


“Collective Hegemony. The nineteenth century Concert of Europe” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

“The Concert of Europe: Great Britain, Austria and Russia” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.

Optional: Conservative Order and Counter-Enlightenment. Congress of Vienna and the Treaty of Paris, 1814-1815.

19. Industrialism, bourgeois politics and the liberal revolution. The shifting game of Diplomacy and the new European equilibria. From the Holy Alliance and the Quadruple Alliance to the Entente Cordiale.


“The Struggle Between Liberalism and Reaction: 1815-1848” from Albrecht-Carrié’s Europe after 1815.

Optional: The Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. Conservative Order and Counter-Enlightenment. Congress of Vienna and the Treaty of Paris, 1814-1815.

20. Power politics, ideologies and Nationalism in the 19th Century in Europe.


“The Revolution that Failed: 1848-1852” from Albrecht-Carrié’s Europe after 1815. Reform and Revolution in Europe to 1850 Nationalism and Empire in Europe

Optional: Karl Marx

21. Imperialisms. How the World was won. The building of the British and the French Colonial Empires.


“The European System Becomes Worldwide” from Watson’s The Evolution of International Society. A Comparative Analysis.

Optional: Africa, Empires and Slavery 1801-1860.

Algeria and Morocco invaded by European Armies. Muslim Herdsmen and Empires. The Zulu Empire to 1828. British, Boers and South Africa, to 1860. Europeans into Oceania. British Imperialism in Asia, to 1900. More Imperialism.

22. Struggle at the centre. The international context of the unification. Germany and the Bismarck systems. Italy and the Risorgimento. The French II Empire and the Franco-Prussian War.


“Triumphs of Nationalism: 1852-1870” from Albrecht-Carrié’s Europe after 1815.

“Two Revolutionaries: Napoleon III and Bismark” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.


Realpolitik Turns on Itself” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy. The Franco-Prussian War and German Unification.

IV. From World Wars to the Contemporary International Society

23. Power politics and the long-term causes of the First World War.


“The European Family of Nations. The Last Decade: The Road to War” from Albrecht-Carrié’s Europe after 1815.

“A Political Doomsday Machine: European Diplomacy Before the First World War” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.

Optional: Towards World War I Europe’s Slide to War World War I: Comprehensive Year-by-Year Timeline with Photos

24. Geopolitical consequences of the First World War. The Versailles Conference. Wilson and the New Diplomacy. The League of Nations.


“The New Face of Diplomacy: Wilson and the Treaty of Versailles” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.

The League of Nations: Successes and Failures, Edward Beneš.

Optional: The Paris Peace Conference and Treaty of Versailles. The Conference and Treaty. Repercussions.$file/Historical_overview_of_the_League_of_Nations.pdf History of the League of Nations (1919-1946). UNOG Library, Registry, Records and Archives Unit.

25. The Soviet Revolution and the prospects of the Century.

Compulsory: The Russian Revolution, February-October 1917. The Russian Revolution, The Red October and the Bolshevik Coup. The Aftermath of the Bolshevik Revolution.

Optional: The Russian Revolution Begins. Power to the Soviets.

26. From the happy twenties to the World Depression. The new phase of Industrialization. The Globalisation of the World. The big crash and the crisis in the US and in Europe.


“The False Recovery. The Economic Consequences of the War” from Albrecht-Carrié’s Europe after 1815.

Optional: The Age of Anxiety: Europe in the 1920s (1 and 2) The United States to 1929. See Wilson Loses His Treaty and League of Nations, Good Times with Harding, Prosperity and the Coolidge Years, Optimism and the Market Clash.

27. The -isms and the Age of confrontations. The social changes and the rise of Nationalisms and Fascisms. Toward the totalitarian regimes: Italy, Germany and Russia. International considerations on the Spanish Civil War.


The False Recovery. New Political Experiments” from Albrecht-Carrié’s Europe after 1815. The Age of Totalitarianism. Stalin and Hitler. Spain and Civil War.


The Soviet Union: Civil War, Lenin and the Rise of Stalin. Instability and Lenin's New Economic Policy. Stalin's Growing Influence. Stalin, from Child to Bolshevik Leader. Filling Lenin's Shoes. Stalin becomes the "Great Builder". Purges and Hysteria in the Soviet Union.

Fascism: Fascism and Philosophy. Germany and Adolf Hitler to 1928. Hitler and Germany: 1928-35. Mussolini and Fascism in Italy.

28. Origins, development and geopolitical consequences of the Second World War.


“The Return to War” from Albrecht-Carrié’s Europe after 1815.

“The Nazi-Soviet Pact” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.


“America Re-enters the Arena: Franklin Delano Roosevelt” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy. Passivity and Aggression in Europe, to 1936. Roosevelt and Approaching War. Hitler and World War Two.


1. The post-war years. The beginning of the Cold War.


“Three Approaches to Peace: Roosevelt, Stalin and Churchill in World War II” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.

“The Beginning of the Cold War” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.

Other: Cold War: 1945-49. Truman and Churchill versus Stalin. The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan, to 1948. Berlin Airlift and Stalin's losing strategy. Russia's atomic bomb. Communists win China's Civil War. Cold War: the Eisenhower Years. Conflict within the Soviet Bloc. Eisenhower and anti-Communism, 1953-54. Cold War Mind-sets.

2. The Third World in the bipolarity. The Arab World at the time of independences.


“The Cold War in Africa” from International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond.


The Third World in the bipolarity: France requests Help in Vietnam. Support for Ngo Dien Diem. Kennedy, Vietnam and Ngo Dien Diem.

The Arab World at the time of independences: US Intervention in Iran and The Iranian Revolution. Nasser and the Middle East. Syria, Lebanon and US Intervention, to 1987. Saddam Hussein and Wars to 1991. Gaddafi's Coup. Gaddafi's Green Book. Gaddafi Exercises Power, 1971-80. Gaddafi, Ronald Reagan, and Pan-Am Flight 203.

3. The origins and the evolution of the Arab-Israeli conflict.


“The Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1949-2007”, from International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond.

Other: Jews and Arabs from WW2 to the 1967 (Six-Day) War. Israel and the Middle East, to 1979.

4. Between revolution and dictatorship. Latin America in the XX Century.


“The United States and Latin America, 1945-2007” from International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond.

Other: Batista and Castro, to 1959. Castro and Eisenhower. Argentina, from Juan and Eva Peron to the Disappeared. Che Guevara in Bolivia. Guatemala, Unrest and Civil War.

5. From the Cold War to Détente. The evolution of the central stage – the new Europe. The Vietnam Wars and the transformation of the US policies. Africa and Asia in transformation.


“The Vietnam Wars, 1945-79” from International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond.

Other: Vietnam, 1964-75.

Africa and Asia in Transformation: Africa into the 1990s. China from Mao to Deng.

6. 1989 and after; Europe and the disintegration of the Soviet Block.


“The End of the Cold War: Reagan and Gorbachev” from Kissinger’s Diplomacy.

Other: 1989: The Walls Came Tumbling Down. End of the Cold War and the Soviet Union.

7. September 11th and the War on Terror.


“The War on Terror in a Globalized World”, from International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond.

Other: Saudi Arabia and Extremists to the year 2000. Iraq to September 2003.

8. The new Mediterranean. The Authoritarian Arab Regimes and the development of the European Policies. The rise of political Islam. The Arab Springs and the future.


“The Rise of Political Islam”, from International History of the Twentieth Century and Beyond.

Other: Gaddafi and Libya, to March 2011. The European Union. Overview.

LEARNING UNIT 1. History of IR through a geopolitical lens (Prof. David Criekemans)

1. Imperial Geopolitics

2. Interwar Geopolitics

3. Cold War Geopolitics

4. Post-Cold War Geopolitics

LEARNING UNIT 2. History of the Cold War (Prof. Andrei Grachev)

  1. The Division (Political legacy of Yalta et Potsdam). Breakup of the «great Troïka»

    1. Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, Prague coup (48) Berlin blockade.

    2. Est.-West confrontation in Asia: China turning red. Wars in Korea and Indochina. Coup d’état in Iran

  1. US- Soviet strategic rivalry (between confrontation and detente)

    1. 1956 – Year of turning points: 20th CPSU congress, crises –Suez, Poland, Budapest 56,  

    2. From Sputnik to Gagarin in space

    3. Second Berlin crisis and Berlin Wall

    4. Cuban Missiles crisis

  1. New world players :

    1. Europe – enters the scene. Process of integration, Ostpolitik from de Gaulle to Willy Brandt. Prague 1968.  

      1. The « third world »- history of decolonisation, Non-aligned movement.

      2. Middle East – the Israeli- Arab confrontation and wars

  1. Ambiguity of US-Soviet condominium.

    1. Second détente (Brejnev – Nixon), US « Chinese card », Helsinki process

    2. 1979  - Iran, Afghanistan

    3. Reagan’s Star Wars program and mutual ‘brinkmanship”

  1. The End of the Cold War ( Gorbachev factor.)

    1. US-Soviet summits (Geneva, Rejkyavik, Malta) Nuclear disarmament. Gorbachev’s New political Thinking.

    2. “Velvet”  revolutions in Eastern Europe, fall of the Berlin wall

    3. Evacuation of Afghanistan, First war in the Gulf

    4. Breakup of the Soviet Union

  1. The world after the Cold War : forward to the past?

    1. Exercises in unipolarity: war in Yugoslavia, NATO expansion

    2. Russian comeback: Georgian war, Ukrainian crisis

    3. Challenges of Islam: (New York 9/11, Iraq, “Great Middle East”, Arab spring, Libya, ISIS and Syrian deadlock.


  1. Lectures

  2. Individual and group practices: text readings and comments, oral and written presentations, debate, essay

  3. Final exam


Lecture class and learning units must be separately passed in order to pass the course. The final score is based in a continuous assessment that takes into account:

Core group:

First sitting

  • Exams (50%)

    • Two exams during the semester (15% each)

    • One final exam at the end of the semester (20%)

  • Group Work (25%):

    • PPT presentations for each session (to choose from a list of topics that will be presented on the first session). Students that do not present on a given session will have to prepare a question on the topic presented, and the professor will choose some students randomly to formulate it.

  • Individual work (25%):

    • Final essay: 2000-2500 words – 10% margin –, free topic to be chosen from the thematic clusters indicated above and subject to the professor’s approval. Students MUST indicate all the reference works used in the text (footnotes) and in the bibliography (Chicago style) (15%).

    • Participation in class (10%).

Second sitting

  1. Final exam (70%)

  2. Continuous evaluation during the semestre (30%)

Learning Unit 1

First sitting

- Exam (100%)

Second sitting

- Exam (100%)

Learning Unit 2

First sitting

- Take-home Exam (100%)

Second sitting

- Take-home Exam (100%)

VERY IMPORTANT: Lecture class and learning units must be separately approved in order to pass the course. In the second sitting, the student will be entitled to retake only the failed part in the first sitting (with the same percentages), but not the one in which he or she was “no-show”; in that case, he or she will fail the whole course and will have to repeat it.


The following criteria will be considered to determine the fulfilment of each evaluation item: 

  • Good understanding and use of key concepts in History of International Relations.

  • Ability to connect the key concepts of the course with broader issues of International Relations, Political Economy and Development.

  • Ability to present one’s own ideas on the basis of the given guidelines.

  • Active participation in class and fulfilment of deadlines.


Core group:


  • Adam Watson, The evolution of International Society. A comparative historical analysis, ed. Routledge, London & N. Y., II ed., 2009;

  • Henry Kissinger, Diplomacy, Ed. Touchston, 1994. Link: ;

  • E. H. Carr, What is History?, Ed. Penguin Books, 1987. Link:;

  • George Lawson and John M. Hobson, What is history in international relations? Millenium – Journal of International Studies, LSE, 2008;

  • Edward Beneš, Successes and Failures of the League of Nations, Foreign Affairs, Council on Foreign Relations,1932.

  • Anthony Best, Jussi M. Hanhimaki, Joseph A. Maiolo, Kirsten E. Schulze, International History of the Twentieth Century and beyond, Rouledge, III ed., 2015;

  • Harold Nicolson, The evolution of the diplomatic method, Praeguer ed., last ed.;

  • Jeremy Black, European International Relations 1648-1815, Plagrave, 2002;

  • F. R. Bridge & Roser Bullen, The Great Powers and the European states system 1814-1914, Pearson Longman, II ed., 2005;

  • Juan Carlos Perera, coord., Historia de las relaciones internacionales contemporáneas, ed. Ariel, 2009.


Learning Unit 1:


  • Dittmer, Jason & Sharp, Jo – Geopolitics. An Introductory Reader. Routledge, 2014, 386 p. (selection of articles)

  • Criekemans David.- Geopolitical schools of thought: a concise overview from 1890 till 2015 and beyond, in: Geopolitics: schools of thought, method of analysis and case studies / Csurgai, Gyula [edit.] - ISBN 2970039559 - Geneva, Editions de Penthes, 2009, p. 5-47


  • Criekemans David.- Réhabilitation et rénovation en matière de pensée géopolitique, L'espace politique - ISSN 1958-5500 - 12:3(2010)

  • Criekemans David.- Ecoles géopolitiques: une brève historiographie, Revue militaire suisse - ISSN 0035-368X - 154:3(2009), p. 8-12

Learning Unit 2:

  • International Relations since 1945 (The History of the Cold War)

  • Jussi M. Hanhimaki and Odd Arne Westad, The Cold War. A History in Documents and Eyewitness Accounts. Oxford University Press.

  • Masterpieces of History. The peaceful end of Cold War in Europe. Edited by Svetlana Savranskaya, Thomas Blanton and Vladislav Zubok. A National Archive Cold War reader, CEU Press

  • Michael R. Beschloss and Strobe Talbott, At the Highest Levels: The Inside Story of the End of the Cold War, Boston: Little, Brown, 1993.

  • Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard (New York: Basic Books; Hraper Collins, 1997)

  • Archie Brown, Seven Years that Changed the World: Perestroika in Perspective, Oxford: Oxford  University Press, 2007.

  • Frank Elbe and Richard Kiessler, A Round Table with Sharp Corners: The Diplomatic Path to German Unity, Baden-Baden: NOMOS, 1996.

  • John Lewis Gaddis  The Cold War. The Deals. The Spies. The Lies. The Truth. Penguin Books

  • Mikhail Gorbachev, Perestroika and New Political Thinking for Our Country and the World, New York: Harper and Row, 1987.

  • Andrei Grachev. Gorbachev’s Gamble. Soviet Foreign Policy and the End of the Cold War. Polity, Cambridge, 2008

  • Jack F. Matlock, Jr, Reagan and Gorbachev: How the Cold War Ended, New York: Random House, 2004.

  • Lilly Marcou La Guerre Froide. L’engrenage, Editions Complexe. 1987

  • (en annexe extraits: Churchill, Discours de Fulton, 05.03.1946, Article de M.X. Foreign Affairs, juillet 1947, Declaration de neuf Partis Communistes. Kominform)

  • Dan Oberdorfer, The Turn:  From the Cold War to a New Era. The United States and the Soviet Union, 1983–1990, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991.

  • Turning Points in Ending THE COLD WAR. Edited by Kiron K.Skinner. Forewords by Pavel Palaschenko and George P.Shultz. Hoover Institution Press, Stanford Universiry. Stanford California. 2008

  • Jirí Valenta and Frank Cibulka (eds), Gorbachev’s New Thinking and Third World Conflicts, New Brunswick, NJ, and London: Transaction Publishers, 1990.

  • Documents advised to be consulted before the course.

  • "The Sinews of Peace" speech by Winston Churchill in Fulton, USA, 5 mars 1946

  • J.F.Kennedy, Commencement Address at American University, Washington D.C. June 10, 1963

  • -Mikhail Gorbatchev speech at the UN General Assembly December 7, 1988


Core group:

Important: a detailed list of the readings to prepare for each session has been given above. It includes links with excerpts and units from these websites.

  • The History guide. Lectures on Ancient and Medieval History; Lectures on Modern European History; Lectures on twentieth Century Europe. Link:;

  • Macrohistory: World History. Link:;

  • Paul Halsall, editor. Internet History sourcebook, project (i) Ancient History sourcebook; (ii) Medieval sourcebook; and (iii) Modern History sourcebook. Link: ;

  • The www virtual library: International Affairs resources. Link:

  • ORB: the online reference book for Medieval studies. Link:;

  • Michael Freeman, “Order, Rights and Threats: Terrorism and Global Justice” in Human Rights in the “War on Terror”, Cambridge University Press, 2005.

  • Tonio Andrade, Beyond Guns, Germs, and Steel: European Expansion and Maritime Asia, 1400-1750, Journal of Early Modern History n.14, 2010

Audiovisual resources:

Fordham University:

Ancient History in the Movies.

Medieval History in the Movies.

Modern History in the Movies.

Movies and History. In Macrohistory: World History.

Senén Florensa Palau • Andrey Grachev