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OFFICIAL PROGRAM
2016 / 17

SUBJECT

Cinematography

ECTS CREDITS3,00
SUBJECT CODEBDIRFOT
LANGUAGE IN WHICH IT IS GIVENCatalan  Spanish  
STUDIES
CODE
DEGREE
TYPE
YEAR
SEMESTER
GCTV
Grau en Cinema i Televisió
Optional
Third
----
GPME
Grau en Periodisme
Optional
Third
----
GPRP
Grau en Publicitat i Relacions Públiques
Optional
Third
----

PREREQUISITES

None

PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE

None

SUBJECTS TO BE TAKEN SIMULTANEOUSLY

None

SUBJECT DESCRIPTION

The fundamental aim of the subject Cinematography is to give the student a basic training in the use of digital cameras, the characteristics of optics and sources of lighting, and in managing different types of lights. The student will also acquire knowledge about the different types of shots and angles, camera movements and lighting techniques, as well as the basics of framing and composition; providing the student with ample technical training, and fostering the development of a personal creative vision. The subject also aims to give an overview of the functions and knowledge involved in cinematography in both film and television. To this end, fundamental processes of cinematography in both feature and short films will be studied.

There will be a detailed description of the photochemical and digital techniques common in the field, in order to provide students with the skills to understand and use technical procedures and the tools needed in the creative field of cinematography.

Learning Unit: “Lighting Design”

During the sessions of the learning unit, the student will be trained in the basic procedures of lighting through practical exercises done on set. Knowledge of the various technical elements that a cinematographer has at his or her disposal is essential for achieving the best lighting design in an audiovisual product. Therefore, different lighting schemes will be studied and the discipline will be taught from a practical point of view, by means of exercises and demonstrations on the use of different light sources, such as tungsten, fluorescent and LEDs, as well as quartz, flags, and so on. Levels of light will also be evaluated.

COMPETENCES

Competence 1: Ability to frame and compose

Competence 2: Ability to understand the functioning of a camera

Competence 3: Ability to recognize different lighting sources, and exploit their differences

Competence 4: Ability to develop measurements related to the amount of light and color quality in the process of constructing images.

Competence 5: Ability to design and conceive the aesthetic and technical presentation of staging a scene

Competence 6: Ability to use color to calculated effect

Competence 7: Ability to understand and apply light as a dramatic effect

CONTENTS

Core group

1- Introduction to Cinematography
1.1- Framing and composition. The importance of personal vision.

1.2-Planning

1.3-Continuity

1.4-Spatial orientation and axis

1.5-Shooting plan

2- The camera and its functionality

2.1-Angle, height, distance

2.2-Optics (zoom, fixed and ultra bright)

2.3-Aperture, focal length, depth of field, hyper focal distance

2.4-Focus, white balance, range, detail, stabilizer

3-Functions of the Cinematographer

3.1-The work of the cinematographer. Lighting by areas.

3.2-The assistant

3.3-Color Grading

3.4-Black and white/color. Thinking in colors.

3.5-The sequence shot. Camera movements (tracking, dolly, zoom, crane)

3.6-Time. Perception. Slow motion and fast motion. Montage.

4-Parts of a Camera

4.1-Body, optics, sound

4.2-Calibrating a camera

4.3-The camera menu and its various possibilities

4.4-Syncronizing with audio

4.5-Calibrating the monitor

4.6-Tripod and gantry

5-Fundamentals of Lightning

5.1-Light in painting. What is the photographic approach of a film? How to create an atmosphere. The use of references.

5.2- Natural light. How to exploit it. Fill light and reinforcement light. Reflectors.

5.3- Artificial light. Types of lamps. Quartz, fluorescent tubes, HMI, Dinkies and LEDs.

5.4-Filtering and cutting light. Flags and diffusers.

5.5-The temperature of color. Filters and gels.

5.6-Electricity and safety. Wiring, order, duct tape, tweezers, gloves.

6-Digital photography

6.1-Types of cameras and formats

6.2-Color depth

6.3-Sampling

6.4-Resolution

6.5-Sensor

LEARNING UNIT

1- “Lighting Design” on the Set

1. The camera

a. Parts of the camera (optics, zoom, iris diaphragm, focus, light measuring)

b. Menu (gain, zebra, photometer, white balance, format, media, Time Code, color temperature, filters)

2- Camera practical

a. Outdoors practical session, monitoring and transferring focus, and following with a hand-held camera

3-Lighting practical

a. Lighting an indoor/ night scene with a person sitting on a couch

b. Devices

c. Placement and nomenclature

d. Using flags

e. Color evaluation: filtering with CTB and CTO gels

4-Lighting practical

a. Lighting of an indoor/ night supper with two people and two standing lamps

b. Using dimmers and diffusers

c. Evaluation of light levels: contrast values

d. Evaluation of color filters and diaphragm

5-Lighting practical

a. Black and white lighting. Dramatic lighting, and lighting in different areas

b. Gray zone and contrast

2-Practical assignments to be done at home by the student:

1- 10 photographs: Self-portrait. The student will photograph him/herself. It can be in B&W or color, documentary or staged, with natural light or set lighting. The essential point is to direct one’s gaze at oneself, focusing on personal vision, control of the frame, light and optics. To be submitted on two A5-sized pieces of black card.

2- 10 photographs: Portrait. The student will photograph another person, preferably unknown, doing a task or activity that defines the subject. It can be in B&W or color, documentary or staged, with natural light or set lighting. The essential point is to exercise personal vision, and control of the frame, light and optics. To be presented on two A5-sized pieces of black card.

METHODOLOGY

With the Core Group, the theoretical contents of the course are developed, leaving the experimental, practical parts for the Learning Unit. The practical sessions should reinforce the theoretical contents. Importance is given not only to the student’s performance in lectures, but also to their use of practical knowledge in the LU, as well as all the critical tasks and analysis of audiovisual products which the student, based on the professor’s advice, completes. Not only the student’s own work but also the ability to critically analysize different audiovisual productions made by others will be emphasized. The assessment of students will be based on individual exercises of photographic sequences, analysis of cinematographic productions, exercises on perspectives, and essays and commentaries on the specific bibliography.

Core group:

a. Lectures

b. Individual exercises outside of class

c. Readings

d. Viewings

e. Participation in class

f. Final exam

Learning Unit:

a. Lectures

b. Individual exercises outside of class

c. Readings

d. Viewings of audiovisual products

e. Participation in class

f. Final exam

g. Practical exercises with technological equipment

EVALUATION

General evaluation:

Core group: 65% of the subject

Final written exam: 65%

Learning Unit: 35% of the subject

Evaluation of individual exercises: 35%

The two blocks are considered a coherent unit, meaning that the student cannot take the final exam if he/she has not submitted a minimum of 70% of the exercises and essays requested by the professor in class, within the deadline and in the format indicated. The average grade of the exercises, together with the final exam, will make up the final grade, according to the percentages above.

It is mandatory for the student to pass the two blocks separately, both the core group and the learning unit, to pass the whole subject. This rule is specified as follows:

a) First sitting: if any block is failed, the student will fail the whole subject. If a grade of 4 or higher is obtained, the exam can be re-taken in the second sitting.

b) Second sitting: in the second sitting, the student must re-take only the block (or blocks) that needs to be passed. In the case of the final exam or re-sit for specific tests for the core group, the student can only attend if he/she has submitted the minimum of 70% of the exercises requested for the core group.

If the student does not manage to pass the failed block (or blocks), he/she will fail the whole subject: the student will then have to re-enrol for the entire course, and he/she will have to sit the exams of the two blocks again.

Once the two blocks have been passed, the final grade will be calculated according to the percentages indicated above. Both in the first and second sitting, if the resulting grade for the course is above 5, but the student has failed one of the blocks, he/she will be awarded a 4.

CRITERIA OF EVALUATION OF RESULTS

Core group

A. Written exam

C. Evaluation of individual exercises

D. Evaluation of group exercises

E. Evaluation of practical work done with technological equipment

G. Evaluation of class participation

H. Evaluation of projects and reports


Learning Unit

A. Written exam

C. Evaluation of individual exercises

D. Evaluation of group exercises

H. Evaluation of projects and reports

BASIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

BROWN, Blain

Motion Picture and video lighting, revised [en] Focal Press.London, 1996/ La iluminación en cine y televisión [es:] Editorial Donostiarra. San Sebastián, 1998

SCHAEFER, Dennis; SALVATO, Larry

Masters of light. Conversations with contemporary cinematographers [en] University of California Press.Los Angeles, 1984/ Maestros de la luz. Conversaciones con directores de fotografía [es] Plot. Madrid, 1990

BIBLIOGRAPHY AND MATTER COMPLEMENTARY

ALEKAN, Henri

Des lumières et des ombres [fr] Centre National des Lettres/La Cinématheque Française.Paris, 1979/F Editions [fr] Paris, 1980/Le Sycomore [fr] Paris, 1984

STORARO, Vittorio

Scrivere con la luce – Writing With Light: Volume 1: The light [it/en] Electa/Accademia dell’Immagine, Milano, 2001/Scrivere con la luce – Escribir con la luz: Volumen 1: La luz [it/es] Electa/Accademia dell’Immagine, Milano, 2004

ARONOVICH, Ricardo

Exponer una historia [es] Gedisa.Barcelona, 1997

BERMINGHAM, Alan

Location lighting for television [en] Focal Press.London, 2003 (1a Ed.)

BERNAL, Francisco

Iluminación en fotografía y cinematografía [es] Ediciones Omega.Barcelona, 2003

BOX, Harry C.

Set lighting technician's handbook. Film lighting equipment, practice, and Electrical distribution Focal Press. London, 1993 (2003, 3a Ed.) The gaffer’s handbook [en] Focal Press. London, 1999

CONSIGLIO, Stefano; FERZETTI, Fabio

La bottega della luce. I direttore di fotografia [it] Ubilibri. Milan, 1983/El almacén de la luz. Directores de fotografía italianos [es]

Escuela Internacional de Cine y Televisión. San Antonio de los Baños, Cuba, 1987

DE LA CRUZ CASTILLO, Antonio; TOLEDANO GASCA, José Carlos

Fuentes de luz [es] Paraninfo.Madrid, 1992

ELKINS, David E.

The camera assistant's manual Focal Press.London, 1996 (1991, 1a Ed.)/Manual del ayudante de cámara [es]

Editorial Donostiarra. San Sebastián, 2001

FITT, Brian; THORNLEY, Joe

Lighting technology Focal Press.London, 1998

GERSTNER, Karl

Die Formen der Farben [de]/ Las formas del color. La interacción de elementos visuales [es] Hermann Blume.Madrid, 1988 (1986)

MALKIEWICZ, Kris

Film lighting. Talks with Hollywood's cinematographers and gaffers Prentice Hall Press. New York, 1986

MILLERSON, Gerald

TV lighting methods Focal Press. London, 1982 (1975, 1a Ed.) Lighting for video Focal Press.London, 1991 (1975, 1a Ed.)/ La iluminación en televisión

Instituto Oficial de Radiodifusión y Televisión.Madrid, 1984 (1975)

NYKVIST, Sven; FORSLUND, Bengt

Vördnad för ljuset AB-Albert Bonniers Förlag.Stokholm, 1997/ Culto a la luz

Ediciones del Imán/AEC. Madrid, 1998 (1997)

PRÉDAL, René

La photo de cinéma [fr] 7e Art.Les Editions du Cerf. Paris, 1985

RITSKO, Alan J.

Lighting for location motion pictures Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. New York, 1979

VAN DAMME, Charlie; CLOQUET, Eve

Lumière actrice Fondation Européenne des Métiers de l'Image et du Son. Paris, 1987

Various authors

Making Pictures: A Century of European Cinematography [en] IMAGO - Aurum.London, 2003

Various authors

American Cinematographer Manual [en] ASC. Hollywood, 2004 [9th Ed.]

VIERA, David

Lighting for film & Electronic Cinematography Wadsworth Publishing Company. Belmont, California, 1993

VILLAIN, Dominique

L'oeil à la caméra [fr] Cahiers du Cinema / Editions de l'Etoile. Paris, 1984

YOUNG, Freddie; PETZOLD, Paul

The work of the motion picture cameraman [en] Focal Press. London, 1972

CREATE BY:   
Iván Gómez García
DATE OF THE LAST REVIEW16/01/2017